This is my second post in a three-part series about the Bible. The first post was shared tips to help Christians understand Scripture better. This week, I’m going to expand on #6 and talk a little about the Old Testament.
One of the common attacks against Christians that I hear is that we are hypocrites who cherry-pick Bible verses. Critics claim that we only follow some things from the Old Testament and ignore others. To be honest, it’s true that Christians only adhere to certain principles in the Old Testament, but that doesn’t make them hypocrites; it makes them Christians who understand the Bible in its entirety.
We need to understand that the Old Testament is the Old Covenant (fun fact: the Greek word used, diatheke, can mean “covenant” or “testament”). It describes God’s relationship with His people before Christ the Messiah came.
We can place the laws we see in the Old Testament into three general categories: civil, ceremonial, and moral.
Civil describes the laws of the land. These laws are shared to show what God’s people faced at the time and provides some historical context. Some examples are inheritance laws, divorce laws, and punishments for violations of moral laws. These are not laws we need to follow because they are not laws seen in our society.
Ceremonial laws are the laws that prepared the Jewish people for the coming of the Messiah. These include things like avoiding unclean animals and performing sacrifices. These laws no longer need to be followed because the Messiah, our Lord Jesus, has come.
Moral laws are what we need must do to be holy. These laws never change because what is right doesn’t change. Examples include avoiding idolatry, being obedient to God, and avoiding sexual sins.
All these laws are useful for informing us, and they are included in the Bible because they are a truth that God desires to be revealed to us, but it doesn’t necessarily mean we are held to them.
Some people question if we are still held to moral laws if Jesus didn’t say anything specifically about it. I will address this in the final post of this series but simply put, Jesus explains that he came to fulfill the law in Matthew 5:17.
Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have come not to abolish but to fulfill.
As Christians, we are bound to follow moral law both because it is unchanging and because Christ commands it. We are not bound to ceremonial law because Jesus created the New Covenant with us as expressed in the New Testament; obeying these laws simply because the Bible says so ignores the context of overall Scripture, specifically, Christ’s sacrifice for us. We are not bound to civil law because they are not the laws of the land we live in (keeping in mind that God’s law always supersedes the law of the land).
It can be challenging to determine where the commands of the Old Testament fit, but we can come to understand these truths through prayer, guidance by the Holy Spirit, and guidance from someone with the appropriate authority (the Church).
My third and final post will be responding to people who say that Jesus never talked about a specific moral teaching so we aren’t held to it. Check in next week Thursday to read it.
If you’d like to read more about cherry-picking Scripture, I wrote a post about how to respond to non-Christians who cherry-pick what Biblical morality Christians should adhere to and what they should avoid.